are commonly, very widely, used as the stable electric potential source for various electrochemical applications. Electrodes are applicable to all commonly used electrochemical apparatus. Standard electrical connecting element is 0,8 to 1 mt. cable with banana. Others are as described above. Reference electrodes for polarography are the ones, designed especially for use in stands of commonly used Metrohm, GAT, PolaroSensors and Ekom PA voltammetric analysers. Connecting elements are banana or microbanana.
They are of a general use for all electrochemical apparatus for measurements, requiring the stable electric potential source. Commonly they have a glass or plastic body, o.d. 12 mm, cap o.d. 16 mm, total length 145 mm. The electrodes with 4 as a first digit have the body equipped with a 14 mm glass cone, for measuring cells with this neck, these are suitable as well for polarographic mesuring cells, the ones with 5 are equipped with a PG 13,5 thread adapter, 6 are plastic enbodied saturated reference electrodes, constructed as maintenanceless, no filling hole, these are with gel electrolyte charged with enough amount of reference salt.
All the saturated electrodes with glass body are available as well in maintenanceless design, with no filling hole, filled with gel electrolyte, rich loaded with sufficient amount of solid electrolyte salt. Standard electrical connection is 0,8 to 1 mt cable with banana. Others as described for pH electrodes. Reference units are Ag/AgCl, KCl, c = as requiered, by argentchloride, Hg/Hg2Cl2, KCl, c = sat. by calomel, Hg/Hg 2SO4, K2SO4, c = sat. by mercurosulphate electrode. For application, if there is not allowed to use KCl as solution for diafragma, for example if precipitation occures, the argentchloride as well as calomel electrodes are available in double junction design, the junction is filled with appropriate solution.
Temperature range 0 to 80 °C by argentchloride, 0 to 70 °C by calomel and 0 to 40 °C by mercurosulphate. Reference electrodes for polarography are mentioned in relevant section. Atypical electrodes, custom made, upon request with description.